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前言,习近平总书记指出,一个国家,一个民族的强盛总是以文化兴盛为支撑的,没有文明的继承和发展,没有文化的弘扬和繁荣,就没有中国梦的实现;
文化研究的范围非常广泛,摸不着,看不见,有人说,文化是虚的,但事实上,文化却又影响着每一个人,在表面上体现着一个人的修养、面貌、精神和态度,根源上却是人生观和价值观,从而影响和指引着各行各业实体的生存、发展和创新的质量;因此,文化又是极其重要的,继承和发扬传统文化,建立文化自信,尊重、欣赏、交流和吸收外来优秀文化,在文化自信的基础上,与时俱进,包容和创建出更优秀的文化;有了文化自信,才能文化兴国,最后就是文化强国,这一理念,同样适用于每一个国家或民族,这将在全球化各国的特色发展中,在一带一路国家的互联互通实践中,具有可复制性和借鉴意义,影响深远、意义重大。

回到本职航运业,很多航海界有识之士也在呼吁航海文化的重要性,但航海文化究竟是什么?很少见到有深度的解读,作为从事一线航运近20年的航运人,想说说个人的感受;但个人能力有限,就先做些微不足道的探索和尝试,抛砖引玉,望能籍此引起航运界,对航海文化实质性的讨论,这也是我辈航运人的使命。

 “名不正,言不顺,只有去定义和正名,才能确定其根源和范围,才能展开有效的探索;定义和正名的探索过程,就是去研究、发现它们的共性和不同的过程,就是去理清它们内部的关系逻辑和外部不同的过程;期望大家能够积极参与进来,理清思路和发现不同,建立科学的发现问题、解决问题的方法论,建立精益求精、持续优化的质量和标准体系,树立科学的人生观和价值观,为航海强国事业做出一份努力和贡献。 

1.先探讨下什么是文化?

何谓文化?

1.1 有人感叹,在这个世界上没有什么比文化更难捉摸。如果试图分析它,会发现它的成分无穷无尽;如果想去描述它,它却没有固定的形状;如果想用文字来定义它,就如同要把空气抓在手里:除了不在手里,它又无处不在。

1.2文化有广义和狭义的定义,广义的文化.指人类在社会历史发展过程中所创造的所有物质财富和精神财富,如 文学、艺术、教育、法律、科学等等。如东方文化”“西方文化”“中国传统文化等等;狭义的文化是指人们运用文字、图画、声音等人类感知工具的能力及一般的知识。如学习文化”“文化水平 

1.3文化的内部结构包括下列几个部分:物质文化、制度文化、行为文化、心态文化。

1.3.1物质文化是人类的物质生产活动方式和产品的总和,是可触知的具有物质实体的文化事物。如航海文物,航运工具---船、机、桨,在各个时代的实物,通过实物能感受到航海技术文明发展的历史。

1.3.2制度文化是人类在社会实践中组建的各种社会行为规范。如以IMO国际海事组织为主制定的国际公约和法规,船旗国法律,港口国法律,船级社标准,行业要求等等制度文化。

1.3.3行为文化是人际交往中约定俗成的以礼俗、民俗、风俗等形态表现出来的行为模式。行为就是个人、团体或组织的做人做事要合法合规、合情合理,并能尊重地方礼节、民俗即入乡随俗。

1.3.4心态文化是人类在社会意识活动中孕育出来的价值观念、审美情趣、思维方式等主观因素,相当于通常所说的精神文化、社会意识等概念。心态文化就是个人、团体或组织的做人做事的态度、方法论、价值观和人生观。

1.3.5 有了好的心态---才会有好的文明行为;有了好的行为---才形成好的规章制度;有了好的制度---才能创造和优化出更好的物质---即产品和服务,人们常说态度决定一切!这个态度,是内心的主要表现,因此,心态文化是文化的核心。

1.4 何谓文化?笼统地说,文化是一种社会现象,是人们长期创造形成的产物。同时又是一种历史现象,是社会历史的积淀物;确切地说,文化是指一个国家或民族的历史、地理、风土人情、传统习俗、生活方式、文学艺术、行为规范、思维方式、价值观念等。

1.5 何谓文化? 具体地说,文化是对人们文明程度的描述,借用网上较流行的,关于文化人的解读,很多人看后深受启发,根植于内心的修养;无需提醒的自觉;以约束为前提的自由;为别人着想的善良;文化,是人们对知识的融会贯通,是人们对经验的积累升华,是人们内心的修养,是个体或团体潜意识的自觉,是社会文明行为的规范,更是人们内心良知的自然表达。 

1.6 何谓文化?文化的几个主要特点:关于文化,不同人会有不同的认知和解读,不同国家、地域、民族也都是不同的,文化具有多样性;不同时代有不同的烙印,不同年龄对文化也会有不同的认识,文化是继往开来、不断更新的,文化具有生命力;文化,或许可以没有标准答案,百花齐放才是美丽的春天,各种真实的声音表达,才可能不断完善文化的内涵,可以求同存异、可以和而不同,文化是包容的;一念天堂,一念地狱,心态可以被情绪左右而失去理智去作恶,冲动是魔鬼,行为需要关照各方、如法合理而不被偶然因素所改变,制度很能被特权和人情践踏,一架飞机造出来不容易,但毁坏只要一瞬间,文化又是极其脆弱的。欢迎和需要大家以不同角度、广度、深度和侧重去发出真实的声音,表达自己的态度。
   
2.再探讨下什么是航海?

2.1定义航海,简单的说就是海航,指的是人作为陆生生物,在无法正常生存的海洋陌生环境中,依靠船、机;依靠纪律、知识和技能;依靠智慧、勇气和意志;为完成特定的目的,在海上航行的冒险活动。

2.2描述航海,航海是人类在蓝色地球上的轨迹;是人类探索海洋、征服自然、前进的脚步;是人类热爱海洋、经略海洋的智慧答卷;更是勇敢、智慧人们的劳动创造。

2.3航海的实践应用?中文字有舟,或指人类作为陆生智慧生物利用,作为交通工具在海上航行,据此,则货船,邮轮,渔船,军舰,帆船统统可以算作航海。

2.4中国航海近代史,中国在明朝时是世界海洋强国,郑和下西洋也被称为海上丝绸之路,为世界人民带去了丝绸、瓷器、茶叶、技艺等物质和精神文明,促进了东西方的交流和进步;以后,中国近现代航海史,实际是屈辱的历史,闭关锁国,西方列强用坚船利炮开道、赤裸掠夺,两次鸦片战争、民病国辱、割地赔款、海权沦丧;8国联军火烧圆明园,8年抗日救国,香港殖民于英国,澳门殖民于葡萄牙。

2.5航海历史回头看,中国航海给世界各国带去物质文明和中华文明,是彼此的尊重、合作和共赢;西方帝国主义航海,给中国带来的是鸦片,掠夺和战争;中国是仁义之师,随着中国的强大,西方列强也习惯性地把中国人想成跟他们一样---那是他们的心魔,那种病是他们的问题,时间或可以治疗。

2.6航海工具,航海一般描述的是人类的航海,航海是为了满足人类的需求而进行的海上活动,航海为全球的物质和文化流通、交流,提供了可靠经济的方式。人类只有依靠航海工具,才能完成该海上活动,其中,满足世界80%以上物质交换的货物运输工具---货船是主要的海上交通工具,货船的数量和吨位,占据航海交通工具的绝大部分,因此,航海货运活动是航海活动的主体,人们通常简称航运

2.7“航运,人们的航海货运活动是一个海岸物流体系,主要包括海上运输和岸基的相关服务,相应的就有了航运的行业简称航运业,相应的就有了从事航运的人称航运人,近几年,全球航运业低迷,航运人不容易。航运作为航海活动的主体,由航运产生的航运文化自然也应是航海文化的主体,探讨航海文化必然离不开航运文化。

3.什么是航海文化?

3.1综合以上,广义的航海文化就是人们在社会航海历史发展过程中,所创造的所有物质财富和精神财富的总和;当前,社会航海实践中,应用的所有物质财富和精神财富的总和;也是指导未来社会航海实践的财富和基础。
3.2狭义的航海文化,就是以航运文化为代表的,航运工具、装备、设施的等物质财富的硬件文化和以航运人为核心的知识、法规、标准等精神财富的软件文化。
 
3.3因此,航运是航运人应用航运知识和技能,利用航海交通工具在海上航行,来完成世界80%以上货物海上运输,满足人们物质和文化需要的海上实践活动;该海上实践活动,以安全高效环保健康(SQEH)为目标和理念,以精益求精、不断提高的探索和总结为指导方法,积累传承、开拓创新,从而逐渐形成航运文化;航运文化或是航海文化的主要代表,当然,客船的邮轮航海文化,渔船的渔业航海文化,军舰航海文化,帆船运动的航海文化等等都应是航海文化的有益组成部分。
 
以上仅是个人关于航海文化的粗浅认识,仅供参考!您心目中的航海文化是怎样的?欢迎您的分享
 
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